is a benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumor affecting
the lining of the chest or abdomen. Exposure to asbestos particles
in the air increases the risk of developing malignant
The Paul Calabresi Award (K12) is a multi- and transdisciplinary
institutional training award supporting the research career development
of clinicians only or clinicians and Ph.D. basic scientists to:
1) perform clinical oncology therapeutic research that develops
and tests scientific hypotheses based on fundamental and clinical
research findings; 2) design and test hypothesis-based, clinical
therapeutic protocols and adjunct biological analyses and for
clinician candidates to administer all phases (i.e., pilot/Phase
I, Phase II, and Phase III) of cancer therapeutic clinical trials;
and (3) conduct cancer therapeutic research in team research settings
in which basic and clinical scientists collaborate and interact
to expedite the translation of basic research discoveries into
patient-oriented therapeutic cancer research. Awards (renewable)
for up to $750,000 annually in direct costs (clinician programs)
or up to $1,050,000 annually (programs combining clinicians and
Ph.D.'s) are made to institutions for up to five years.
The Award requires that at least 2 oncology disciplines are represented
in the appointments to a K12 Program and the participating K12
Program faculty, didactic and research core requirements in basic
science and clinical research for each appointee; and a basic
science mentor and a clinical mentor for each appointee. All clinician
candidates or trainees must currently be physicians holding the
M.D. or D.O. degrees, or be nurses with a Ph.D. degree; and must
have completed the necessary clinical training (i.e., completed
residency and are board eligible) to engage in clinical oncology
research. All basic science candidates must have doctoral-level
degrees (e.g., Ph.D., D.V.M.) or the equivalent, a minimum of
2 years of postdoctoral research training, and a total basic research
experience that is clearly preparatory (e.g., experience with
animal models or preclinical research) for devoting a career to
human therapeutic cancer research.
All candidates must be committed to a minimum of 75 percent full-time
professional effort conducting research and engaging in activities
directly related to research career development, which includes
all relevant didactic activities during the period of the award.
They must be citizens or non-citizen nationals of the United States,
or must have been lawfully admitted to the United States for permanent
residence (i.e., in possession of a currently valid Alien Registration
Receipt Card I-551, or other legal verification of such status).
Non-citizen nationals are generally persons born in outlying possessions
of the United States (i.e., American Samoa and Swains Island).
Individuals on temporary visas are not eligible.
Candidates may be former or current principal investigators on
NIH Small Grants (R03) or Development and Innovation Grants (R21)
or non-NIH equivalents to these grants/awards.
Candidates may not be current or former principal investigators
on NCI K01 grants (Temin Award), NCI K07 grants or NIH K08 grants,
NIH Research Project Grants (R01, R29) or subproject leaders on
Program Project Grants (P01) and Center Grants (P50), or non-NIH
equivalents to these grants/awards. Candidates also may not be
current or former principal investigators on NIH K23 grants, NCI
K22 grants, or non-NIH equivalent grants/awards. However, clinician
candidates appointed to K12 grants are encouraged to apply for
The most important diagnostic tool remains the medical history:
the character of the complaints and any specific symptoms (fatigue,
weight loss, unexplained anemia, paraneoplastic phenomena and
other signs). Often a physical examination will reveal the location
of a malignancy.
Diagnostic methods include:
* Biopsy, either incisional or excisional;
* Endoscopy, either upper or lower gastrointestinal, bronchoscopy,
* X-rays, CT scanning, MRI scanning, ultrasound and other radiological
* Scintigraphy, Positron emission tomography and other methods
of nuclear medicine;
* Blood tests, including Tumor markers, which can increase the
suspicion of certain types of tumors or even be pathognomonic
of a particular disease.
Apart from in diagnosis, these modalities (especially imaging
by CT scanning) are often used to determine operability, i.e.
whether it is surgically possible to remove a tumor in its entirety.
Generally, a "tissue diagnosis" (from a biopsy) is
considered essential for the proper identification of cancer.
When this is not possible, empirical therapy (without an exact
diagnosis) may be given, based on the available evidence (e.g.
history, x-rays and scans.)
Occasionally, a metastatic lump or pathological lymph node is
found (typically in the neck) for which a primary tumor cannot
be found. This situation is referred to as " carcinoma of
unknown primary", and again, treatment is empirical, based
on past experience of the most likely origin.